Monday, 31 August 2015

The Terracotta bust of Edward III from Queen Caroline's Library.

 
Terracotta Bust of Edward III.
 
One of the Seven Terracotta Busts by Michael Rysbrack,
Accidently Destroyed when a Shelf Collapsed
at Windsor Castle in 1906.
 
The Original Photographs were taken by Livingstone in 1874 for a royal inventory.

The busts had been moved to Windsor Castle in 1825 when Queen Caroline’s library at St James’s Palace was demolished. 
 
 
 
Terracotta bust of Edward III by Michael Rysbrack circa 1737.
 
 
Royal Collection Trust / © HM Queen Elizabeth II, 2015.
 
It appears that Rysbrack based this portrait bust on painted portrait once in the collection of Dr Andrew Gifford (1700-1784)or the engraving by French engraver
Gaspard Duchange (see below).
 
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From the following images it is clear that these images are all based on the funeral Monument of Edward III in Westminster Abbey.
 
 

 
Monument to Edward III Westminster Abbey.
 
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Edward III, Electrotype by Elkington after a cast of the bronze monument in Westminster Abbey, taken by Brucianni.
Image - © National Portrait Gallery, London.
 
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Portrait of Edward III.
 
Oil on Panel 479 x 368 mm.
 first recorded in the Royal Collection 1818.
Royal Collection Trust / © HM Queen Elizabeth II, 2015.
 
 
 
 
Edward III
572 x 440 mm.
Currently in the Queens Gallery, Palace of Holyrood House.
 
 
Royal Collection Trust / © HM Queen Elizabeth II, 2015.
 
Notes:  When the Hanovarians succeeded to the British throne in 1714 they did not inherit a comprehensive collection of portraits of English kings and queens of England. The only portraits of medieval monarchs then in the collection were six panels depicting Henry V, Henry VI, Edward IV and his queen, Elizabeth Woodville (RCIN 406785), Richard III and Elizabeth of York. Tudor monarchs were better represented but even here the legacy was disappointing. Queen Caroline, consort of George II, supplemented this meagre supply with a group of fifteen panels (of roughly the same dimensions), most if not all acquired from Charles Cornwallis, 1st Earl Cornwallis (1700–62), perhaps in 1721–2, when he was Groom of the Bedchamber. In this way she added some duplicates and some important new names – Henry IV, Henry VII and his mother Lady Margaret Beaufort (fig. vii.5), as well as the present two, of Edward III and Richard II. The Cornwallis purchase also included, from the Tudor period, Henry VIII and two of his wives, Catherine of Aragon and Anne Boleyn, and Edward VI and Mary I. Queen Caroline hung the entire set in the Dressing Room of her private apartments at Kensington.

Queen Caroline probably wanted as many English kings as she could obtain, but she must have sought some more than others. Edward III was a model warrior king and the essential ancestor of any claimant to the throne during the Wars of the Roses. The reign of his son, Richard II, represented a moment of stillness before the anarchy of civil war. Queen Caroline may have seen a parallel between the Wars of the Roses and the ongoing dynastic struggle between the houses of Hanover and Stuart. 

This set, created long after their sitters’ deaths by a journeyman painter, are based on images in Westminster Abbey, among them the tomb of Edward III. The portrait shows the head and shoulders of the King, he wears a crown and an ermine robe.

Text adapted from The First Georgians: Art and Monarchy 1714-1760, London, 2014.
 
Provenance - Acquired by Queen Caroline from Lord Cornwallis.

 
Royal Collection Trust / © HM Queen Elizabeth II, 2015.
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Another version of the Portrait of Edward III. Circa 1597 - 1618
From the Hornby Set of 16 Royal Portraits.
Originally in Hornby Castle, near Bedale seat of the 10th Duke of Leeds (1862 - 1927).
National Portrait Gallery since 1930
Currently at Montecute House.
© National Portrait Gallery, London.
For an excellent and in depth analysis of this and other portrays see -
Thesis submitted for the degree of DPhil at the University of Sussex 2015 by Catherine Daunt.
 
 
 
See also National Portrait Gallery -
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Edward III.
Engraved by Renold Elstrack (1570 -1625)
19 x 111 mm.
British Museum
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Anon. Engraving pub. 1677.
 
© National Portrait Gallery, London
 
 
Engraved by Robert White.
 
Title-page to Robert Brady, 'A continuation of the complete history of England'
(London, S. Lowndes and A. & J. Churchill, 1700).
275 x 167 mm.
British Museum.
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Engraving of Edward III
Anon after Edward Lutterell
c. 1680 - 1720.
323 x 201 mm.
British Museum.
 
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Engraving by Gaspard Duchange (1662 - 1757).
 
365 x 223 mm.
 
Royal Collection Trust / © HM Queen Elizabeth II, 2015.
 
 
 
Engraving by George Vertue
from Rapin de Thoyras
from a painting in Windsor Castle
 
British Museum.
 
 
 
 
An Early 18th century portrait of Edward III.
Perhaps by George Vertue or John Faber.
 
From the Collection of Baptist minister, numismatist and assistant librarian in the British Museum Dr Andrew Gifford (1700-1784);
by whom presented to British Museum on 2 November 1758; from whom purchased by the Ministry of Works in 1946
545 x 425 mm.
 
Image from Government Art Collection.
 
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Edward III
Engraved by George Vertue.
 
 Plate from Paul de Rapin and Nicolas Tindal's History of England (1743-47). 
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Edward III - Silver Medallion by Jean Dassier of 1731.
Bust of Edward III wearing a helmet decorated with a dragon, the device of Cadwallader.
41 mm. in diameter.
Image courtesy Ben Weiss.
 
 
I am very grateful to Ben Weiss for his communications and permission to use his photographs of the Dassier Medallions - I intend to write further on the Dassier Medallions in due course.
 
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The Wooden Head of Edward III at the Tower Armouries.
 
  This would appear to be a good point to illustrate one of the eighteen 17th century wooden heads identified as Edward III, from the Tower Armoury. Two heads documented as Charles I and Charles II were from the workshop of Grinling Gibbons, the others were manufactured in the workshops of William Emmett, William Morgan, John Nost I, Thomas Quellin and Marmaduke Townson. A further head of William III by Nicholas Alcock was added to the group in 1702.
 
The head of Edward III: three paint finishes only. It seems not to have been sanded, showing a ground layer of lead white & chalk, followed by an original pale flesh finish of lead white tinted with vermilion. Repainting using red ochre for a darker pink was followed by its present orange-pink treatment.
 
These heads from ' the line of kings' sitting on horseback in full armour were William the Conqueror, Edward I, Edward III, Henry IV, Henry V, Henry VI, Edward IV, Edward V, Henry VII, Henry VIII, Edward VI and James I – twelve, in addition to Gibbons’ Charles I and II. This means that several heads other than those representing kings may have been produced, such as ‘John of Gaunt’ and possibly ‘Richard, Duke of York’
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 

A terracotta bust of Queen Philippa of Hainault wife of Edward III from Queen Caroline's Library.


A Terracotta bust of Queen Philippa of Hainault (1314 - 69),
Wife of Edward III.
One of the Seven Terracotta Busts by Michael Rysbrack,
Accidently Destroyed when a Shelf Collapsed
at Windsor Castle in 1906.
 
The Original Photographs were taken by Livingstone in 1874 for a royal inventory.

The busts had been moved to Windsor Castle in 1825 when Queen Caroline’s library at St James’s Palace was demolished. 

 
 
The Rysbrack bust based on the monument in Westminster Abbey and the portrait by Thomas Murray of 1710 engraved by John Faber Snr.
 
Royal Collection Trust / © HM Queen Elizabeth II, 2015.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Queen Philippa of Hainault by Elkington & Co, cast by Domenico Brucciani, after Jean de Li├Ęge
electrotype, 1873 (circa 1367)
17 1/4 in. (438 mm) high
 
This electrotype is a copy from the head and shoulders of the marble tomb effigy in Westminster Abbey. It is one of a series of electrotype reproductions of tomb effigies made for the National Portrait Gallery by Elkington & Co in the 1870s. An electrotype sculpture of this type is made by electro-deposition of copper onto a mould or cast of an object. The electrotype could then be patinated like bronze.
Bought by the NPG in 1872
Photograph NPG.
 
 
Portrait of Philippa of Hainault by Thomas Murray, 1710.
 
Current location unknown.
 
 
 
Queen Philippa of Hainault by John Faber Jr, after Thomas Murray.


mezzotint, possibly mid 18th century
9 5/8 in. x 9 1/2 in. (245 mm x 240 mm) paper size
 
NPG.
 
 
 
The Faber Mezzotint from the collection of Louis Philippe at the Chateau of Versailles.
 
 
Detail of the Faber Mezzotint giving the source of the image as both of the painting by Murray and the monument in Westminster Abbey.
 
 
 
 
Another mid 18th Century portrait of Queen Philippa of Hainault
possible by John Faber Sr.
 
For a surprisingly good biography of Philippa of Hainault see Lives of the Queens of England by Agnes Strickland. 1864.
On page 408, she tantalisingly mentions, a portrait on board (in Crowle's Pennants London vol. VIII. British Museum) discovered in St Stephens Cloisters.
 
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 Royal Collection Trust / © HM Queen Elizabeth II, 2015.

Sunday, 30 August 2015

Alfred The Great, Terracotta bust from Queen Caroline's Library, Destroyed in 1906.

 
 
Terracotta bust by Michael Rysbrack.
Elizabeth of York (1466 -1503), consort of Henry VII.
 
65.3 x 35.0 x 23.0 cms
 
One of the Eleven Busts by Michael Rysbrack,
Seven were accidently destroyed when a shelf collapsed

at Windsor Castle in 1906.
 
The Original Photographs were taken by Livingstone in 1874 for a royal inventory.

The busts had been moved to Windsor Castle in 1825 when Queen Caroline’s library at St James’s Palace was demolished.
 
 
 
The terracotta bust of Alfred the Great.
This bust had until now been wrongly identified as Edward III.
 
Royal Collection Trust / © HM Queen Elizabeth II, 2015.
 
 
The Stourhead marble bust of Alfred the Great by Michael Rysbrack.
 
 
Portland Stone bust of Alfred the Great by Michael Rysbrack.
 
in the Temple of British Worthies at Stowe.
 
 
 
The earliest representation of Alfred the Great is in Matthew Paris's Major Chronicle of c.1250. The portrait above was commissioned by Thomas Walker master of University College Oxford. The claim that Alfred the Great was the founder of the college had been promulgated by William Camden (1551 - 1623) who published Brittania  in 1586 first  in Latin and later in English - 1603 edition of Asser's Life of King Alfred.
 
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Late 17th century Engraving of Alfred the Great
Michael Burgers.
 
Stone head of Alfred the Great at Brasenose College, Oxford
Engraved by Michael Burgers (1653 - 1727).
43 x 44 mm (cut).
 
 
 
 
Engraving of Alfred the Great 
by Michael Burgers (1653 - 1727).
258 x 158 mm.
 
Showing two stone heads - the left head being the obvious inspiration for the engraved portrait of Alfred the Great.
Note - Michael Burgers, Engraver, born Amsterdam, emigrated to England 1672/3. Working in Oxford, initially as Loggan's assistant from 1673, and appointed (or was called) University engraver after Loggan's death in 1692. Engraved the university almanacks.
 
British Museum.
 
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Late 17th century engraving by Michael Burgers.
 
253 x 158 mm
 
 
Portrait, half length, of Alfred the Great, wearing crown, ermine mantle and holding sceptre, from a statue (?) in St Albans; below two portraits of Alfred with orbs and sceptres; from a window at All Souls' College, Oxford.
 
British Museum.
 
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Headpiece from Unidentified book attrib. to Michael Burgers.
74 x 186 mm.
 
British Museum.
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Frontispiece from Sir John Spelman's Life of Aelfred.1709.
 
 
 
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Mezzotint of Alfred the Great
Engraved by John Faber Snr. 1712
257 x 200mm
British Museum.
 
 
 
Engraving Anon mid 18th Century
 
156 x 93 mm.
 
NPG.
 
 
 
 
Engraving by Giles King
pub. James Mechell.
c.1733 360 x 230
British Museum 
 
 
 
Engraving by George Vertue 1732
From Paul Rapin de Thoyras
288 x 191 mm.
 
British Museum 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Alfred the Great.
Engraving by George Vertue
162 x 92 mm
NPG.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Alfred the Great.
 
Plaster Roundel in Caesars Hall, Kedleston. Circa 1760.
 
 
 
 

Friday, 28 August 2015

Elizabeth of York, A Terracotta bust from Queen Carolines Library, damaged in 1906

Terracotta bust by Michael Rysbrack.
Elizabeth of York (1466 -1503), consort of Henry VII.
 
65.3 x 35.0 x 23.0 cms
 
One of The Busts by Michael Rysbrack,
Seven were accidently destroyed when a shelf collapsed
at Windsor Castle in 1906.
 
The Original Photographs were taken by Livingstone in 1874 for a royal inventory.

The busts had been moved to Windsor Castle in 1825 when Queen Caroline’s library at St James’s Palace was demolished.
  
 

Damaged by accident 1906 but not destroyed - It remains in the Royal Collection.
 
 
 
 
 
Electrotype of Elizabeth of York
Cast by Domenico Brucciani.
Purchased by the NPG in 1870.
864 mm.
NPG.
 
 
This electrotype is a copy from the upper part of the gilt bronze effigy of the queen on the double tomb with her husband Henry VII by the Italian Torrigiano at Westminster Abbey. It is one of a series of electrotype reproductions of tomb effigies made for the National Portrait Gallery by Elkington & Co in the 1870s. An electrotype sculpture of this type is made by electro-deposition of copper onto a mould or cast of an object. The electrotype could then be patinated like bronze
 
 
 
 
 
 
An amusing photograph from A Pictorial History of Westminster Abbey.
1950's
 
 
Elizabeth of York
Funeral Effigy
Westminster Abbey
 
 
387 x 278 mm.
 
Royal Collection.
 
This is an early portrait type of Elizabeth of York. It has been overpainted and scientific research needs to be carried out to verify its date, but it probably dates to the early sixteenth century and therefore could be counted among the earliest Royal Portraits in the Royal Collection. 

The wife of Henry VII is shown in head and shoulders view, holding a white rose in her hands and wearing a ‘gable-hood’. It is possibly a contemporary image taken from the life. In 1502 a Flemish artist, Maynard Waynwyck, was commissioned to paint individual portraits of Henry VII, Elizabeth of York, Princess Margaret and Prince Henry to be sent to Scotland on the occasion of Margaret’s betrothal to James IV. It is possible that this is a variant of this, now lost, portrait type.
 
Royal Collection Trust / © HM Queen Elizabeth II, 2015.
 
 
 
Another early version of the Royal Collection portrait.
From Philip Mould, Historical Portraits.
 
58.5 x 44.5 cms.
Collection of the Earls of Essex at Cassiobury, by descent.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Another anonymous early version of the Royal Collection portrait.
From Philip Mould, Historical Portraits.
29.7 x 23 cms
 
 
 
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Engraving by Pieter Stevens van Gunst, after Adriaen van der Werff
line engraving, 1697
 
318 x 184 mm.
NPG.
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Engraved by Houbraken for Birch's Heads 1737.
365 x 230 mm.
British Museum.